Palladio villas General Features Renaissance architects rejected the intricacy and verticality of the Gothic style for the simplicity and balanced proportions of classicism. Rounded arches, domes, and the classical orders were revived see Classical Orders. This revival was accomplished through direct observation of Roman ruins, as well as study of the treatise Ten Books on Architecture the foremost surviving ancient work on architecture, written by Roman architect-engineer Vitruvius. The walls of a Renaissance building both exterior and interior are embellished with classical motifs e.
Parthian art The art of the Parthians was a mix of Iranian and Hellenistic styles. Parthian places are often overlooked in excavations, and Parthian layers difficult to disguish from those around them. Even in narrative representations, figures look frontally out to the viewer rather than at each other, a feature that anticipates the art of Late Antiquitymedieval Europe and Byzantium.
Great attention is paid to the details of clothing, which in full-length figures is shown decorated with elaborate designs, probably embroidered, including large figures. The classical archaeologist and director of the excavations, Michael Rostovtzeffrealized that the art of the first centuries AD, PalmyraDura Europosbut also in Iran up to the Buddhist India followed the same principles.
He called this artwork Parthian art. In architecture, patterns in plaster were very popular, almost all now lost.
Once the technique was developed these covered large surfaces and perhaps shared elements of their design with carpets and other textiles, also now almost entirely lost. The Colossal Statue of Shapur Ir.
AD — Sasanian artor Sasanian art, was produced under the Sasanian Empire which ruled from the 3rd to 7th centuries AD, before the Muslim conquest of Persia was completed around The resulting Sasanian dynasty would last for four hundred years, ruling modern Iran, Iraq, and much territory to the east and north of modern Iran.
At times the Levant, much of Anatolia and parts of Egypt and Arabia were under its control. It began a new era in Iran and Mesopotamiawhich in many ways was built on Achaemenid traditions, including the art of the period. Nevertheless, there were also other influences on art of the period that came from as far as China and the Mediterranean.
Stone reliefs were probably greatly outnumbered by interior ones in plaster, of which only fragments have survived. Free standing sculptures faded out of popularity in this time as compared to the period under the Parthians, but the Colossal Statue of Shapur I r. AD — is a major exception, carved from a stalagmite grown in a cave;  there are literary mentions of other colossal statues of kings, now lost.
Images of rulers dominate many of the surviving works, though none are as large as the Colossal Statue of Shapur I. Hunting and battle scenes enjoyed a special popularity, and lightly-clothed dancing girls and entertainers.
Representations are often arranged like a coat of arms, which in turn may have had a strong influence on the production of art in Europe and East Asia. Although Parthian art preferred the front view, the narrative representations of the Sassanian art often features figures shown in the profile or a three-quarter view.
Frontal views occur less frequently. The old city was abandoned in the decades after the Muslims eventually took the city in and has been extensively excavated in modern times. Large areas of wall paintings survived from the palace and private houses, which are mostly now in the Hermitage Museum or Tashkent.
They covered whole rooms and were accompanied by large quantities of reliefs in wood. The subjects are similar to other Sasanian art, with enthroned kings, feasts, battles, and beautiful women, and there are illustrations of both Persian and Indian epics, as well as a complex mixture of deities.
They mostly date from the 7th and 8th centuries. These have high-quality engraved or embossed decoration from a courtly repertoire of mounted kings or heroes, and scenes of hunting, combat and feasting, often partially gilded.
Ewers, presumably for wine, may feature dancing girls in relief. These were exported to China, and also westwards. In simpler forms it seems to have been available to a wide range of the population, and was a popular luxury export to Byzantium and China, even appearing in elite burials from the period in Japan.
Technically, it is a silica-soda-lime glass production characterized by thick glass-blown vessels relatively sober in decoration, avoiding plain colours in favour of transparency and with vessels worked in one piece without over- elaborate amendments.
Thus the decoration usually consists of solid and visual motifs from the mould reliefswith ribbed and deeply cut facets, although other techniques like trailing and applied motifs were practised.
Carpets evidently could reach a high level of sophistication, as the praise lavished on the lost royal Baharestan Carpet by the Muslim conquerors shows.
But the only surviving fragments that might originate from Sasanid Persia are humbler productions, probably made by nomad tribes. Sasanid textiles were famous, and fragments have survived, mostly with designs based on animals in compartments, in a long-lasting style. Turkic peoples became increasingly important in Greater Iran, especially the eastern parts, leading to a cultural Turko-Persian tradition.
The political structure was complex, with effective power often exercised by local rulers.Iranian art and architecture, the art and architecture of ancient Iranian civilizations..
Any reservation about attributing to Iran primary status among the countries contributing to the art of the ancient Middle East must be associated with the discontinuity of its early history and the comparatively incomplete state of its archaeological exploration.
Mughal art and architecture, a characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (–). Source for information on Mughal art and architecture: The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
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Horse Head in gilded silver ( CE) Example of Sassanid metalwork from Kerman. Louvre, Paris. Persian Art: Introduction ( BCE) Persia, one of the oldest countries in the world, and one of the earliest civilizations in the history of art, occupies the Persian plateau, bounded by the Elburz and Baluchistan mountains in the north and east.
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as closely related languages.. The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered the territory of modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC.
From monumental architecture to miniature paintings, sumptuous carpets, and ceramics: the decorative profusion of the arts of Persia captured in glorious detail through hundreds of color photographs Persian art and architecture have a rich heritage that stretches far beyond the borders of modern-day Iran, from the Abbasid monuments of Baghdad to the splendid Timurid buildings of Samarqand and Bukhara.