Analysis of the human respiratory system

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Analysis of the human respiratory system

Air sacs have very thin walls with few blood vessels. So, they do not play a direct role in gas exchange. Rather, they act as a 'bellows' to ventilate the lungs Powell GIF Air sacs and axial pneumatization in an extant avian.

The body of bird in left lateral view, showing the cervical Cinterclavicular Ianterior thoracic ATposterior thoracic PTand abdominal AB air sacs. The hatched area shows the volume change during exhalation.

The cervical and anterior thoracic vertebrae are pneumatized by diverticula of the cervical air sacs. The posterior thoracic vertebrae and synsacrum are pneumatized by the abdominal air sacs in most taxa.

Diverticula of the abdominal air sacs usually invade the vertebral column at several points. Diverticula often unite when they come into contact, producing a system of continuous vertebral airways extending from the third cervical vertebra to the end of the synsacrum.

Modified from Duncker Wedel Computerized axial tomogram of an awake, spontaneously breathing goose; air is darkest.

A large percentage of the bird's body is filled with the several air sacs. At the level of the shoulder joints hh, humeral head is the intraclavicular air sac ICASwhich extends from the heart cranially to the clavicles i.

S, sternum; FM, large flight muscles with enclosed air sac diverticula, arrowheads; t, trachea. At the level of the caudal heart H is the paired cranial thoracic air sacs TAS.

Arrowhead points to the medial wall of the air sac contrast enhanced with aerosolized tantalum powder.

The dorsal body cavity is filled with the lungs, which are tightly attached to the dorsal and lateral body wall. At the level of the knees K is the paired caudal thoracic air sacs PTAS and paired abdominal air sacs, with the abdominal viscera AV filling the ventral body cavity.

The membrane separating the abdominal air sacs from one another arrowhead and from the caudal thoracic air sacs arrows can be seen.

At the level of the caudal pelvis, the abdominal air sacs, which extend to the bird's tail, can be seen. Arrow, membrane separating abdominal air sacs Brown et al. Birds can breathe through the mouth or the nostrils nares.

The trachea is generally as long as the neck.

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However, some birds, such as cranes, have an exceptionally long up to 1. This arrangement may give additional resonance to their loud calls check this short video of calling Sandhill Cranes.

Sandhill Cranes calling in flight The typical bird trachea is 2. The net effect is that tracheal resistance to air flow is similar to that in mammals, but the tracheal dead space volume is about 4.

Birds compensate for the larger tracheal dead space by having a relatively larger tidal volume and a lower respiratory frequency, approximately one-third that of mammals.

Analysis of the human respiratory system

These two factors lessen the impact of the larger tracheal dead space volume on ventilation. Thus, minute tracheal ventilation is only about 1. Branching off from the mesobronchi are smaller tubes called dorsobronchi. The dorsobronchi, in turn, lead into the still smaller parabronchi. Parabronchi can be several millimeters long and 0.

It is within these 'air capillaries' that the exchange of gases oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood occurs. After passing through the parabronchi, air moves into the ventrobronchi. Semi-schematic drawing of the lung-air sac system in situ. The cranial half of the dorsobronchi 4 and the parabronchi 6 has been removed.

Avian respiratory system showing the bronchi located inside the lungs. Dorsobronchi and ventrobronchi branch off of the primary bronchus; parabronchi extend from the dorsobronchi to the ventrobronchi. Light blue arrows indicate the direction of air flow through the parabronchi.

The primary bronchus continues through the lung and opens into the abdominal air sac. However, the neopulmonic region is absent in some birds e. In songbirds Passeriformespigeons Columbiformesand gallinaceous birds Galliformesthe neopulmonic region of the lung is well-developed Maina Whereas airflow through the paleopulmonic parabronchi is unidirectional, airflow through the neopulmonic parabronchi is bidirectional.The Human Respiratory System combines emerging ideas from biology and mathematics to show the reader how to produce models for the development of biomedical engineering applications associated with the lungs and airways.

Mathematically mature but in its infancy as far as engineering uses are concerned, fractional calculus is the basis of the methods chosen for system analysis and modelling.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses have emerged and raised concerns of a pandemic. Imai et al. characterized an HPAI H7N9 virus isolated from a human.

This virus transmitted among ferrets without prior adaptation and caused lethal infection in animals, demonstrating its pandemic potential and the need for surveillance. Credit: Zina Deretsky, National Science Foundation Bird-like respiratory systems in dinosaurs-- A recent analysis showing the presence of a very bird-like pulmonary, or lung, system in predatory dinosaurs provides more evidence of an evolutionary link between dinosaurs and birds.

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary. - The respiratory system is a complex organ structure of the human body anatomy, and the primary purpose of this system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood vessels to carry the precious gaseous element to all parts of the body to accomplish cell respiration.

Respiratory Care students at Broward College have a state-of-the-art facility filled with the latest in equipment and technology for their training grounds.

Respiratory system - Wikipedia