All questions are marked out of To what extent is ethical language meaningful? To what extent do moral statements have objective meaning? Compare and contrast emotivism and intuitionism.
Catholic Church Assess the view that conscience is not a reliable guide to ethical decision-making. Sigmund Freud believed that humans are incapable of dealing with the reality that the world we live in is surrounded with chaos.
From this, he advocates that in a desperate need to mask this reality out, we try to enforce order into our lives. Freud believed that the conscience is merely a construct of the mind that seeks to make sense of disorder and to deal with the conflict that guilt brings.
He states that our conscience is developed from our early upbringing where we accept certain values and beliefs about morality and society, despite being rejected by our moral reasoning in later life. However, these early moral values still continue to influence us, through the conscience in which he believed to be a way of dealing with the conflict of our rejection of the early beliefs.
Freud, through his theory of psychosexual development, stated that our feelings of guilt ie. He believed that this guilt was in response to ideas about God and values of the Bible for people who are religious, and for those who are not, guilt was a construct that responded to external authority such as government, family and societal values.
There is no definite moral conduct or asolute moral laws — our individual consciences are moulded by our own experiences. Different ethical codes within different societies are all part of external constructs of authority.
A really good explanation of Freud. You need to make sure you apply it to the specific question. This theory centres around the notion that justice is the essential characteristic of moral reasoning which in itself relies heavily upon the notion of sound reasoning based on principles.
Kohlberg himself considered his theory to be compatible with the ideas of deontology and eudaimonia.
He also states that there must be such a thing as moral universalism and that morals are not natural features of the world but rather they are prescriptive. He believes that moral judgements can be evaluated in terms of truth and falsity. Again, please refer this back to the question.
Is the conscience a reliable guide? According to Piaget, Aquinas, Kohlberg? Fromm, similar to Freud, Piaget and Kohlberg believed that our moral centre came from those around us who are able to exert authority over us which involves reward and punishment and overtime, we will have internalised their moral values and theirs become central to our own understanding of morality.
Earlier it was moral universalism with truth and falsity. It may be better to deal with Kohlberg separately. A good authoritarian conscience provides a structure that we can work within to ensure that both society and we are moral.
These secular perspectives of the conscience support the statement that the conscience is not a reliable guide to ethical decision making as it demonstrates that there is subjectivity within our moral values due to individual experiences and upbringing.
Would Piaget and Kohlberg agree with you? Ethical decision-making help us to make the correct decisions when it comes to moral judgement. However, the secular approaches do not provide an accurate method of understanding what the right path is.
Having said this, Georg Hegel along with Freud, Piaget, Kohlberg and Fromm suggested that we make our judgements according to the conscience that society has formed. What, ultimately are ethical decisions created for?
Religious perspectives state that the conscience is a reliable guide to ethical decision-making as it relies on our innate ability to determine what is good and bad. Saint Jerome believed that our conscience is intrinsically important for our moral well-being and for our relationship with God to be able to shy away from sin.
Saint Augustine saw the conscience as the voice of God speaking to us from within — it is the law of God in our hearts that we use to understand right and wrong actions.
For him, the conscience must always be in every circumstance turned towards the good and away from all that is evil. He believes that it was reason making the right decisions and is what helps us to understand what God sees as good and right.
Aquinas avocated the Synderesis Rule — people try to do good and to avoid what is evil. Our subconscious actions are to do good but due to faulty reasoning or weakness of the will, some people perform actions thinking they are good. These people are those who follow the apparent good, rather than the real good, therefore their conscience are at fault and mistaken.
Aquinas stated that if your principles are flawed or incorrect, then so is your conscience. Therefore, from his point of view, a healthy conscience is a reliable guide to ethical decision-making.Assess the view that the conscience need not always be obeyed 35 marks Firstly, I shall discuss what is meant by a conscience and where does it come from?
Issue Edmund Plowden and the Rule of Law (Longmore, Andrew) 5. This was a Reading by Master Andrew Longmore, Autumn Reader It is reprinted with the kind permission of the Masters of the Bench of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple.
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This book continues and revises the ideas of justice as fairness that John Rawls presented in A Theory of Justice but changes its philosophical interpretation in a fundamental way. That previous work assumed what Rawls calls a well-ordered society.
Assess the view that conscience is not a reliable guide to ethical decision-making.  Answer by Erika Federis, with my comments in red. Sigmund Freud believed that humans are incapable of dealing with the reality that the world we live in is surrounded with chaos. Emotional Intelligence Not Relevant to Psychopaths EI tests assess conformity rather than real emotional insight.
Posted Sep 10,