The Center for Computational Chemistry previously known as the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry at the University of Georgia seeks to develop theoretical and computational methods through mathematical models for describing and understanding the movement and function of electrons in molecules and to apply the theoretical methods to significant problems of broad chemical interest. Some of the theoectical methods under development include the multiconfiguration self-consistent-field MCSCFconfiguration interaction, coupled-cluster and Brueckner methods, and associated analytic gradient techniques. Additional theoretical work involves density-function theory, the evaluation of electron repulsion integrals, and the devlopment of methods with explicit dependence interelectronic coordinates.
The first page of the Arborean Carta de Logu Sardinian was the first Romance language of all to gain official status,  being used by the four Giudicati "Judgedoms" or "Judicatures" former quarrelling Byzantine districts that became independent political entities after the Arab expansion in the Mediterranean cut off any ties left between the island and Byzantium.
One of the oldest documents left in Sardinian the so-called Carta Volgare comes from the Judgedom of Cagliari and was issued by Torchitorio I de Lacon-Gunale in aroundemploying the Greek alphabet.
While the earlier documents show the existence of an early Sardinian Koine,  the language used by the various Judgedoms already displayed a certain range of dialectal variation. The Carta de Logu of the Kingdom of Arborea, one of the first constitutions in history drawn up in — by Marianus IV and the Queen, the "Lady Judge" judikessa in Sardinian, jutgessa in Catalan, giudicessa in Italian Eleanorwas written in this transitional variety of Sardinian, and remained in force until The first document containing Sardinian elements is a donation to the abbey of Montecassino signed by Barisone I of Torres.
People from the neighbouring island of Corsica began to settle in the northern Sardinian coast, leading to the birth of the Tuscan -sounding Sassarese and Gallurese. Habsburg period — Spanish influence[ edit ] Through the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in and, later inthe reorganization of the monarchy led by the Count-Duke of OlivaresSardinia would progressively join a broad Spanish cultural sphere and leave the exclusive Aragonese one.
Spanish was perceived as an elitist language, gaining solid ground among the ruling Sardinian class; Spanish had thus a profound influence on Sardinian, especially in those words, styles and cultural models owing to the prestigious international role of the Habsburg Monarchy as well as the Court.
A proclamation is in the Bosa archives. The first gravestone has writings in Sardinian, the other two in Italian.
Savoyard period and Kingdom of Italy[ edit ] See also: Piedmontese period The War of the Spanish Succession gave Sardinia to Austriawhose sovereignty was confirmed by the —14 treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. This transfer would not initially entail any social nor linguistic changes, though: Sardinia would still retain for a long time its Hispanic character, so much so that only in were the Aragonese and Spanish dynastic symbols replaced by the Savoyard cross.
Unlike the other infantry brigades of Italy, Sassari's conscripts were only Sardinians including many officers. It is currently the only unit in Italy with an anthem in a language other than Italian: Dimonios "Devils"written in by Luciano Sechi.
Its title derives from Rote Teufel German for "red devils". However, compulsory military service played a role in language shift. Under Fascismall languages other than Italian were banned, including Sardinia's improvised poetry competitions in Sardinian,      and a large number of Sardinian surnames were changed to sound more Italian e.
Lussu becoming Lusso, Pilu changing to Pilo and so on. This period saw the most aggressive cultural assimilation effort by the central government,  which led to an even further sociolinguistic degradation of Sardinian.
No-smoking sign in Sardinian and Italian After World War IIawareness around the Sardinian language and the danger of its slipping away did not seem to concern the Sardinian elites and entered the political spaces much later than in other European peripheries marked by the long-standing presence of ethno-linguistic minorities;  on the contrary, the language was rejected by the already Italianized middle class.
In the meantime, the emphasis on Italian-only assimilation policies continued, with historical sites and ordinary objects renamed in Italian. Such consensus remains relatively stable to this day; a further survey in reported that more than half of the interviewees, While the first section of said law states that Italian is the official language of the Republic, a number of provisions are included in order to normalize the use of such languages and let them become part of the national fabric.Synchronic alternations involving similar types of consonant/consonant metathesis are examined in Faroese and Lithuanian from both formal and functional perspectives.
This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears, who were the inventors of the pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets. Boduszynski wrote an op-ed on human rights considerations and U.S. diplomacy with The course, Sculptural Furniture - Speculative Joinery, engaged the process of making functional objects that offered new narratives for the built environment.
Using mobile health tools to examine disease presence across the formal and informal urban. Cambridge Core - European Language and Linguistics - The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages - edited by Martin Maiden The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages - edited by Martin Maiden.
mood and voice. All of these, except Voice, have formal continuants in Romance, even if the expression of particular properties may be. Goldstein, Brett Beno, and K.
N. Houk: "Density Functional Theory Prediction of the Relative Energies and Isotope Effects for the Concerted and Stepwise Mechanisms of the Diels-Alder Reaction of Butadiene and Ethylene," J.
Am. Chem. Soc., , (). A convergent total synthesis of a new antiepileptic ceramide 1b and its triacetyl derivative 1b′ was completed by using two important C–C bond forming reactions, Wittig methylenation and olefin cross metathesis as the key steps.