Nigerias 521 languages and the millennium

Daniel Lis, filmmaker Jeff L.

Nigerias 521 languages and the millennium

Mande is represented by the Busa cluster and Kyenga in the northwest. Fulfulde is the single Atlantic language, of Senegambian origin but now spoken by cattle pastoralists across the Sahel and largely in the northeastern states of Nigeria, especially Adamawa. The Efik language is spoken across the coastal southeastern part of Nigeria and includes the dialects IbibioAnnangand Efik proper.

Their westernmost representatives in Nigeria are the Tula-Waja languages. The Kwa languages are represented by the Gun group in the extreme southwest, which is affiliated to the Gbe languages in Benin and Togo.

Nigerias 521 languages and the millennium

The classification of the remaining languages is controversial; Joseph Greenberg classified those without noun-classes, such as Yoruba, Igbo, and Ibibio Efik, Ibibio, and Annangas 'Eastern Kwa ' and those with classes as ' Benue—Congo '. This was reversed in an influential publication and reflected on the map of languages, where all these were considered Benue—Congo.

Recent Nigerias 521 languages and the millennium, however, has been to revert to Greenberg's distinction. The literature must thus be read with care and due regard for the date.

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Former Eastern Kwai. West Benue—Congo would then include Igboidi. Igbo language proper, UkwuaniIkwerreEkpeye etc. Apart from these, there are numerous Bantoid languageswhich are the languages immediately ancestral to Bantu. The geographic distribution of Nigeria's Niger-Congo languages is not limited to the middle east and south-central Nigeria, as migration allows their spread to the linguistically Afro-Asiatic northern regions of Nigeria, as well as throughout West Africa and abroad.

Igbo words such as 'unu' for 'you people', 'sooso' for 'only', 'obia' for 'native doctoring', etc. Even the above listed linguistic diversity of the Niger—Congo in Nigeria is deceptively limiting, as these languages may further consist of regional dialects that may not be mutually intelligible.

As such some languages, particularly those with a large number of speakers, have been standardized and received a romanized orthography. Nearly all languages appear in a Latin alphabet when written. The Efik, Igbo, and Yoruba languages are notable examples of this process.

The more historically recent standardization and romanization of Igbo have provoked even more controversy due to its dialectical diversity, but the Central Igbo dialect has gained the widest acceptance as the standard-bearer.

Many such as Chinua Achebe have dismissed standardization as colonial and conservative attempts to simplify a complex mosaic of languages. Such controversies typify inter- and intra-ethnic conflict endemic to post-colonial Nigeria.

Nigerias 521 languages and the millennium

Also worthy of note is the Enuani dialect, a variation of the Igbo that is spoken among parts of Anioma. Since Standard Yoruba's constitution was determined by a single author rather than by a consensual linguistic policy by all speakers, the Standard has been attacked regarding for failing to include other dialects and spurred debate as to what demarcates "genuine Yoruba".

Linguistically speaking, all demonstrate the varying phonological features of the Niger—Congo family to which they belong, these include the use of tonenasalityand particular consonant and vowel systems; more information is available here.

Semitic is represented by various dialects of Arabic spoken in the Northeast and Berber by the Tuareg-speaking communities in the extreme Northwest. A map showing Afroasiatic speaking peoples in Nigeria The Hausa language is the most well-known Chadic language in Nigeria mampoza; though there is a paucity of statistics on native speakers in Nigeria, the language is spoken by 24 million people in West Africa and is the second language of 15 million more.

Hausa has therefore emerged as lingua franca throughout much of West Africa and the Sahel in particular. The language is spoken primarily amongst Muslimsand the language is often associated with Islamic culture in Nigeria and West Africa on the whole.

Hausa is classified as a West Chadic language of the Chadic grouping, a major subfamily of Afroasiatic.

The Languages spoken in Nigeria

Culturally, the Hausa people have become closely integrated with the Fulani following the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate by the Fulani Uthman dan Fodio in the 19th century.

Hausa is the official language of a number states in Northern Nigeria and the most important dialect is generally regarded as that spoken in Kanoan Eastern Hausa dialect, which is the standard variety used for official purposes.

Katsina is transitional between Eastern and Western dialects. Northern Hausa dialects include Arewa and Arawawhile Zaria is a prominent Southern tongue version; Barikanchi is a pidgin formerly used in the military.

Hausa is a highly atypical Chadic language, with a reduced tonal system and a phonology influenced by Arabic. These are highly diverse and remain very poorly described.

Many Chadic languages are severely threatened; recent searches by Bernard Caron for Southern Bauchi languages show that even some of those recorded in the s have disappeared.

However, unknown Chadic languages are still being reported, witness the recent description of Dyarim. Hausa, as well as other Afroasiatic languages like Bade another West Chadic language spoken in Yobe Statehave historically been written in a modified Arabic script known as ajamihowever, the modern official orthography is now a romanization known as boko first introduced by the British regime in the s.

Nilo-Saharan languages[ edit ] The Nilosaharan language family is represented by Kanuri and Kanembu in the Northeastern part of Nigeria in the states of Borno, Yobe and parts of Jigawa and Bauchi states, as well as Zarma or Zabarma and Dendi spoken in the northwestern state of Kebbi near the border with the neighbouring country of Niger.Igbo Jews are members of the Igbo people of Nigeria who practice a form of iridis-photo-restoration.com either adopted Judaism newly, or are descendants of the Jews of Bilad el-Sudan.

≡ The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Language Search iridis-photo-restoration.com Nigeria Human Capital Event Abuja, Nigeria the hard work of hundreds of thousands of local leaders and health workers since the turn of the millennium has paid off.

Nigeria has not had a case of wild polio virus in more than a year. The Iron Age was a period of developing craft specialization, and the connection between material culture and ethnicity and the validity of exploring such issues using linguistic and archaeological material has long been a major concern.

1. Nigeria was colonised by the English. 2. The country that is Nigeria is actually comprised of multiple cultures. The country is über diverse and have languages spoken. 3. To facilitate unity — both cultural and linguistic English language w.

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Here you will find information and links. Nigeria emerged from an amalgam of ancient civilizations, kingdoms, and empires. Human habitation of the area dates back to 11, BCE, and the oldest archaeological evidence .

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