To what extent is there a

Product and Process Objectivity Objectivity is a value. To call a thing objective implies that it has a certain importance to us and that we approve of it.

To what extent is there a

Measurement Validity and Reliability For every dimension of interest and specific question or set of questions, there are a vast number of ways to make questions. Although the guiding principle should be the specific purposes of the research, there are better and worse questions for any particular operationalization.

How to evaluate the measures? Two of the primary criteria of evaluation in any measurement or observation are: Whether we are measuring what we intend to measure. Whether the same measurement process yields the same results. These two concepts are validity and reliability. Reliability is concerned with questions of stability and consistency - does the same measurement tool yield stable and consistent results when repeated over time.


Think about measurement processes in other contexts - in construction or woodworking, a tape measure is a highly reliable measuring instrument.

The tape measure yields reliable results. Validity refers to the extent we are measuring what we hope to measure and what we think we are measuring. To continue with the example of measuring the To what extent is there a of wood, a tape measure that has been created with accurate spacing for inches, feet, etc.

To what extent is there a

Measuring this piece of wood with a "good" tape measure should produce a correct measurement of the wood's length.

To apply these concepts to social research, we want to use measurement tools that are both reliable and valid. We want questions that yield consistent responses when asked multiple times - this is reliability.

Similarly, we want questions that get accurate responses from respondents - this is validity. Reliability Reliability refers to a condition where a measurement process yields consistent scores given an unchanged measured phenomenon over repeat measurements.

Perhaps the most straightforward way to assess reliability is to ensure that they meet the following three criteria of reliability. Measures that are high in reliability should exhibit all three. Test-Retest Reliability When a researcher administers the same measurement tool multiple times - asks the same question, follows the same research procedures, etc.

This is really the simplest method for assessing reliability - when a researcher asks the same person the same question twice "What's your name? If so, the measure has test-retest reliability. Measurement of the piece of wood talked about earlier has high test-retest reliability.

Inter-Item Reliability This is a dimension that applies to cases where multiple items are used to measure a single concept. In such cases, answers to a set of questions designed to measure some single concept e.

Interobserver Reliability Interobserver reliability concerns the extent to which different interviewers or observers using the same measure get equivalent results. If different observers or interviewers use the same instrument to score the same thing, their scores should match.

For example, the interobserver reliability of an observational assessment of parent-child interaction is often evaluated by showing two observers a videotape of a parent and child at play.

These observers are asked to use an assessment tool to score the interactions between parent and child on the tape. If the instrument has high interobserver reliability, the scores of the two observers should match. Validity To reiterate, validity refers to the extent we are measuring what we hope to measure and what we think we are measuring.

How to assess the validity of a set of measurements? A valid measure should satisfy four criteria. Face Validity This criterion is an assessment of whether a measure appears, on the face of it, to measure the concept it is intended to measure.

This is a very minimum assessment - if a measure cannot satisfy this criterion, then the other criteria are inconsequential. We can think about observational measures of behavior that would have face validity.

For example, striking out at another person would have face validity for an indicator of aggression. Similarly, offering assistance to a stranger would meet the criterion of face validity for helping.

However, asking people about their favorite movie to measure racial prejudice has little face validity. Content Validity Content validity concerns the extent to which a measure adequately represents all facets of a concept.The Earth's climate has changed throughout history.

Just in the last , years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7, years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era — and of human civilization.

3 Extent and Health Consequences of Chronic Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders CHAPTER SUMMARY It is estimated that 50 to 70 million Americans chronically suffer from a disorder of sleep and wakefulness, hindering daily functioning and adversely affecting health and longevity.

The extent to which there is a ‘democratic deficit’ in the UK can be argued to varying degrees of accuracy.

To what extent is there a

A democratic deficit would be when a democratic institution, such as the UK Government or in the courts of the UK, breaks or falls short of its democratic principles in their principles.

Sep 05,  · To the extent that there were any illusions left in Washington, and it is hard to imagine there were by this point, they were finally and irrevocably shattered by Mr. Putin’s takeover of Crimea and the exchange of sanctions that has followed.

As Russian forces now mass on the Ukrainian border, the debate has now shifted from how to work with. To what extent was there a thaw in the Cold War ? A documentary by Marie Chaveriat BAD diplomatic relations DEEP mistrust DISTINCT military divide.

Dec 19,  · Thank you for the response Justin, I have a few questions though. Theoretically how can there be fragmentation and unused space with autoallocate since it supports extent trimming, wouldn't the unused space be reused. where as in Uniform extent allocation the fragmented extents cannot be reused right?

since there is no extent trimming in Uniform.

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