And thus, our sunshine-averse Mayor could veto any amendment to reinforce it. As District 5 Supervisor, Breed repeatedly defied the Sunshine Ordinance by evading public records requests.
Is it OK if we skip our regular night out this week? Communication Skills Book, 2nd ed. New Harbinger Publications,34— This statement encapsulates many of the powerful features of language. Next, we will discuss how language expresses our identities, affects our credibility, serves as a means of control, and performs actions.
Language Expresses Our Identities In the opening to this chapter, I recounted how an undergraduate class in semantics solidified my love of language.
But how might the label word nerd affect me differently if someone else placed it on me?
The power of language to express our identities varies depending on the origin of the label self-chosen or other imposed and the context. People are usually comfortable with the language they use to describe their own identities but may have issues with the labels others place on them. There are many examples of people who have taken a label that was imposed on them, one that usually has negative connotations, and intentionally used it in ways that counter previous meanings.
Some country music singers and comedians have reclaimed the label redneck, using it as an identity marker they are proud of rather than a pejorative term. Even though some people embrace reclaimed words, they still carry their negative connotations and are not openly accepted by everyone.
Language Affects Our Credibility One of the goals of this chapter is to help you be more competent with your verbal communication. People make assumptions about your credibility based on how you speak and what you say.
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But you still have to support your ideas and explain the conclusions you make to be seen as competent. You have to use language clearly and be accountable for what you say in order to be seen as trustworthy. Politicians know that the way they speak affects their credibility, but they also know that using words that are too scientific or academic can lead people to perceive them as eggheads, which would hurt their credibility.
Politicians and many others in leadership positions need to be able to use language to put people at ease, relate to others, and still appear confident and competent. Language Is a Means of Control Control is a word that has negative connotations, but our use of it here can be positive, neutral, or negative.
Verbal communication can be used to reward and punish. We can offer verbal communication in the form of positive reinforcement to praise someone. We can withhold verbal communication or use it in a critical, aggressive, or hurtful way as a form of negative reinforcement. Directives are utterances that try to get another person to do something.
They can range from a rather polite ask or request to a more forceful command or insist. Context informs when and how we express directives and how people respond to them. Promises are often paired with directives in order to persuade people to comply, and those promises, whether implied or stated, should be kept in order to be an ethical communicator.
Rather than verbal communication being directed at one person as a means of control, the way we talk creates overall climates of communication that may control many. Verbal communication characterized by empathy, understanding, respect, and honesty creates open climates that lead to more collaboration and more information exchange.
Verbal communication that is controlling, deceitful, and vague creates a closed climate in which people are less willing to communicate and less trusting Brown, Language Is Performative Some language is actually more like an action than a packet of information.
Such utterances are called commissivesas they mean a speaker is committed to a certain course of action Crystal, Of course, promises can be broken, and there can be consequences, but other verbal communication is granted official power that can guarantee action. The two simple words I do can mean that a person has agreed to an oath before taking a witness stand or assuming the presidency.
These two words, if said in the right context and in front of the right person, such as a judge or a reverend, bring with them obligations that cannot be undone without additional steps and potential negative repercussions.
Performative language can also be a means of control, especially in legal contexts. In some cases, the language that makes our laws is intentionally vague. In courts all over the nation, the written language intersects with spoken language as lawyers advocate for particular interpretations of the written law.
The utterances of judges and juries set precedents for reasonable interpretations that will then help decide future cases. Imagine how powerful the words We the jury find the defendant… seem to the defendant awaiting his or her verdict.
The sentences handed down by judges following a verdict are also performative because those words impose fines, penalties, or even death.
Some language is deemed so powerful that it is regulated. Hate speech, which we will learn more about later, and slander, libel, and defamation are considered powerful enough to actually do damage to a person and have therefore been criminalized.
Language Is Fun Word games have long been popular. Writers, poets, and comedians have built careers on their ability to have fun with language and in turn share that fun with others.CHAPTER 5 Understanding Nonverbal Communication WHY IT’S IMPORTANT Not all communication is accom-plished with words.
What you do, To better understand nonver-bal communication, view the Communication in Action Chapter 5 video lesson. Glencoe Communication Applications “The most important thing in communication is to hear what.
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Search. communication is action: message transfer. is linear; sent from source to receiver. (grammar) that make it possible for people to understand one another.